New smartphone regulations in China have caused concern among technology companies. The regulations, filed by China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology to a WTO database of technical barriers to trade. China’s WTO trade barrier notification listed safety, rather than national security, as the chief reason for the regulations. China has long made use of vague standards and other guidelines that are technically voluntary but end up being mandatory in practice. China had recently approved of the iPhone 5 this week, while the USA and many other countries have had it since September.